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Kali Linux

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History of Kali Linux
Kali Linux is launched in the year 2013 in the month of March, before the kali linux (Backtrack) is used for penetration. Kali Linux is just created it as a replacement of earlier Backtrack distribution.
Kali Linux has most advanced and stable penetration testing distribution and also advanced robust.
Supports more then six hundred tools for Penetration testing, Forensics and Ethical Hacking.
Developed by Mati Aharoni and Devon Kearns and also Mati Aharoni is the owner of Offensive Security.

What is Offensive Security?
Offensive Security is company which works in Cyber Security Domain and also provide OSCP Certificate.

What is linux Distribution?
Distribution is also called as (Distro).
 Linux Distribution is
For Example:- 
(An application created by linux based on kernal, after creation the creator of the application was sent the application with source code to his friend and made an another application with the help of that application with another name only by making some changes and adding some extra packages in that source code is called linux distribution.

There are six hundred linux distribution providing different features
For Example:-
1. Ubuntu
2. Arch Linux
3. Fedora
4. Kubuntu
5. Mandriva Linux
6. Mageia
7. Deepin
8. Sabayon Linux
9. Ubuntu MATE
10. Bodhi Linux
11. Peppermint OS
12. Scientific Linux
13. BlackArch
14. NixOS
15. CrunchBang Linux
16. Parrot OS
17. Budgie
18. SolydXK
19. Ubuntu Kylin
20. BlackBox
21. Alpine Linux
22. Pinguy OS
23. BunsenLabs Linux
24. Void Linux
25. SUSE Linux
26. Kanotix
27. Aptosid
28. The Linux Schools Project
29. AV Linux
30. SuperGamer
31. Lunar Linux
32. Debian Pure Blend
33. Grml
34. Russian Fedora Remix
35. EulerOS
36. Siduction
37. TumKey Linux Virtual Appliance Library
38. DNALinux
39. BasicLinux
40. Caldera OpenLinux
41. Yggdrasil Linux/GNU/X
42. Vyos
43. ROSA Desktop
44. Parsix
45. Endian Firewall
46. LEAF Project
47. Asturix
48. HandyLinux
49. Foresight Linux
50. KaOS

What is Backtrack?
Backtrack is a very powerful platform which provides penetration testing and also focused on the security. Backtrack is based on KNOPPIX Linux, KNOPPIX is also a distribution, KNOPPIX Linux is an Operating System based on Debian and Debian is an open source operating system based on kernal.

What is Kernal?
Kernal is a program which is very most important thing in the computer. It has total control over everything in the system, like it may be any activity you are doing from A to Z in the computer, is processing with only kernal, nothing is processing without help of kernal in your computer, Because only kernal is the thing which provide RAM, Storage, CPU, Graphic, Processor and Information etc.., as needed to the program you are running.
For Example:-
You are playing games, then the kernal will provide and supply the needed things for playing games.
Not only for games also each and every activity performing in the computer like, Music, Movies, Coding, Editing etc...,

Kernal works as a interface between Hardware and Software
Different operating system has different different kernal like,
Mac/Apple has (XNV Kernal)
Windows has (Windows NT Kernal)
Android has (Linux Kernal)
Where is Kernal file Location?

Types of Kernal:-
Monolithic Kernal Linux operating system
Micro Kernal Different
Hybrid Kernal Windows operating system
1. Monolithic Kernal:- In this everything works only with kernal, This is very fast.
2. Micro kernal:- In micro Kernal user space and kernal space will be divided.
Userspace:- System memory of application running. It also take permission of kernal sometimes if any resources needs kernal permission but in this process there is little latency.
3. Hybrid Kernal:- This is mixer of Monolithic Kernal which is fastest  uses in windows.

What is shell?
Shell is also the part of the operating system like kernal is a part of operating system.
Shel is a translator for our input to the kernal and give us output .
It is an interpreter.

Types of shell:-
1. Borne Shell:-
The first shell to the appear on Unix System.
Original Unix Shell was written by Bill Joy at UC Berkely.
This Operating System is written in 'c' Language.
This will be seen in Linux Directories as /bin/sh

2. Bash Shell:-
This is the advanced shell of borne shell which is developed for the GNU project.
This is the actual shell of linux which is called as Bash Shell.
'$' Character is the default character from where you can start writing your command in the Command Prompt.

3. C Shell:-
In this shell % character is the default character from where you can start writing your command in the Command Prompt.
Mostly network admin use this shell and also it is comfortable to the learner with 'C'.

What is File System?
File System is a method which gives controls to the Operating System to track all the files. Basically it is a manager of File System.

What is Linux File System Hierarchy?
(FHS) is the short form of  Linux File System Hierarchy Standard. Linux File System Hierarchy Standard project was started or began in 1993.
This will organize or separate files to category wise and store. Only FHS will decide and organize which file should be stored where.
This is a root in Linux FHS.
In the linux, only root can add or remove or make changes. Like, in windows only administrator can change or replace, add or remove.
Only from root directory, these below directories are made:-
1. /bin/ :- This contains command used by the both system administrator and by users.
2. /root/ :- Here all the booting information are present like Booting, Grab Boot Loader, Kernal.
3. /dev/ :- In this all the files of hardware information is stored or present in /der/ like, Hard-Disk, Removable Drives etc..,
4. /etc/ :- Which files are not located in any locations that files will locate in this /etc/ location. Like, group information, Passwords, Users etc..., also /etc/ is has more files inside.
5. /home/ :- It contains Standard Users home directories.
6. /lib/ :- In this file contains library contains those shared library images needed to boot the system and run the commands of the root file system.
7. /media/ :- All the external parts connected to the pc like, hard drive, memory card etc.., are shown in the /media/ file. this is a mount point of removable media. this folder is managed by operating system. this is done automatically by the operating system.
8. /mnt/ :- In this only temporary files contains which administrator mount a file system as needed. This can be managed by the administrator. Administrator will mount manually.
9. /opt/ :- In this add-on application software packages are stored.
Example:- Printer.
10. /root/ :- Home directory for root user. All the account information of administrator.
11. /sbin/ :- This contains binaries essential for Booting, Restoring, Recovering, and/or Repairing the system in addition to the binaries in (/bin/). The files present in this /sbin/ which can only run by administrator.
12. /srv/ :- All the services relatives like, you are running any services by the system like apache HTP server to serve a website, FTP server etc.., which people can access from the outside were there are.
13. /tmp/ :- In this all the temporary files are saved and after restoring it will be automatically detected.
14. /usr/ :- The files and applications used by the user that data will save in /usr/
15. /var/ :- Contains data files. This includes files, administrative and logging data, and temporary files. which are not of same size every time.
16. /proc/ :- It stores files that shows system and process information.
17. /lost+found/ :- Here that files present which are crashed by some issues. If found in the (/lost+found/) file it will restore from there.
18. /run/ :- This directory contains pc information data when it was booted. Present program which are running.
Linux File Types:-
Linux had different-different file types and there are total 7 different file types are present in the linux operating system.
1. (-) :- Regular File.
2. (d) :- Directory
3. (c) :- Character Device File
4. (b) :- Block Device File
5. (s) :- Local Socket File
6. (p) :- Normal Pipe
7. (i) :- Symbolic Link
Regular Files:- The most common files which we use in our daily base like, Songs, Text, Mp4 etc...,
Directory:- This is the secound most common file in linux
Character Device File:- In this contains file of peripheral devices like, Keyboard, Mouse, etc..,
Block Device File:- Removable Disk file, Hard Disk File etc..,
Local Socket File:- Communication between two or multiple processes is done by local socket file. Generally they are used by services such as Windows, Syslog and etc..,
Named Pipe:- Communication between two local processes. which is created by MKnod and with rm command it will be removed.
Symbolic Link:- Redirecting from one file to another file like, Hyper link

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