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C++ Programming Language

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Note:- Before going throw this page C++ you have to learn C for better understanding


1. #include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()                                                                                        
{
cout<<"this is statement 1\n";
cout<<"this is statement 2\n";
cout<<"this is statement 3\n";
return 0;
}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. #include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
int a;
float b;
double c;
char d;
string e;

cout<<"Enter your integer value";
cin>>a;

cout<<"Enter your float value";
cin>>b;

cout<<"Enter your double value";
cin>>c;

cout<<"Enter your character value";
cin>>d;

cout<"Enter your string value";
cin>>e;

cout<<"integer value is:"<<a>>"\n";

cout<<"float value is:"<<b>>"\n";

cout<<"double value is:<<c>>"\n";

cout<<"character value is:<<d>>"\n";

cout<<"string value is:<<e>>"\n";

return 0;

}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. write a program to read integer value from user and print the given value is +ve or -ve or zero

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main ( )
{
int a;
cout<<"Enter your number";
cin>>a;
if (a>0)
{
cout<<a<<"is +ve number";
}
else if (a<0)
{
cout<<a<<"is -ve number";
}
else
{
cout<<a<< is zero";
}
 return 0;
};
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Find Even number or Odd numbers

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main( )
{
int a;
cout<<""Enter your number";
cin>>a;
if (a%2==0)
{
cout<<a<<"is Even number";
}
else
 {
cout<<a<<"is Odd number";
}
return 0;
}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. Print 1 to 10 Numbers

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
int i;
for (i=1;i<=10;i++)
{
cout<<i<<"\n";
}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. Print 1 to 10 Even numbers

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main ( )
{
int i;
for (i=1;1<=10;i++)
{
if (i%2==0)
{
cout<<i<<"\n";
}
 return 0;
}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. Sum of 1 to 10 Numbers

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
int main ( )
int = i, sun = 0;
for (i=1;1<=10;i++)
{
sum=sum +i;
}
cout<<"sum is"<<sum;
{
return 0;
}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

8. Print 1 to 50 Odd Numbers

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
int main ( )
{
int i, sum=0;
for (i=1; i<=50; i++)
{
if (i%2!=0)
{
sum=sum+i;
}
}
 cout<<"sum is"<<sum;
return 0;
}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

9. Write a program to find 1 to 500 perfect numbers

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
int main ( )
{
cout<<"\n\n Find the perfect numbers between 1 and 500 : \n";
cout<<".....................\n";
in i=1, u=1, sum=0;
cout<<"\n The perfect numbers between 1 and 500 are : \n"
while (i<=500)
{
while (u<=500)
{
if (u<i)
{
if (i%4==0)
sum=sum+4;
}
 4++;
}
 if (sum==i)
}
 cout<<i<<"   "<<"\n";
}
i++;
4=1;
sum=0;
}
}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Example:-


class vehicle
{
int wheel = 4
int engine = 1
int steering = 1
steering colour = "red"
void movie ( )
void sound ( )
void break ( )
}
Object : Object is a real entity

Example:-

Pen, Car, Mobile, Marker, House, Tree etc...,

Each object contains two properties,

they are:-
1. State
2. Behaviour

Car Object:-

State:-
1. Colour
2. Shape
3. Engine
4. Wheels
     Etc....

Behavior:-
1. Movie ( )
2. Speed ()
3. Horn ()
4. Break ()
    Etc.....

What is Class:-
* Class is a collection of objects.
                     (OR)
* Class is a blue print of an object.
                     (OR)
* Class is a collection of states and behaviour.
                     (OR)
* Class is a collection of data members and member method.

Class Syntax:-
Class Class_name
{

state
   +
behavior

}

Example:-

class vehicle

{

int wheel = 4;
int engine = 1;
int steering = 1;
steering colour = "red";
void movie ( )
void sound ( )
void break ( )

}

Principles of OOPs:-
* Encapsulation
* Data Abstraction
* Inheritance
* Polymorphism

What is Data Hiding?
* By taking private variables we can achieve data hiding.

Class Bank
{

private double balance = 90,000.67;
public double get balance (  )

{

// validations
 return balance;

}

}

Advantages of Data Hiding?
* Security.

Data Abstraction is nothing but highlighting the required information by using GUI we can active the data.

Advantages of Data Abstraction:-
1. Security
2. Efficiency
3. Maintainability.

Definitions:-

Inheritance:-  Inheritance is a process of aqua-ring the properties from one class to another class.

Encapsulation:- Raping up of data members and members method is called Encapsulation.
     Ex:- Class

Polymorphism:- Polymorphism means ability to form more than one form.

Sorting of the given array:-
* Write a program to sort a given array

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
void main()
{
int a [20]
int i, n, j, temp;
cout<<"Enter the value of n : "<<end1;
cin>>n;
cout<<"\n Enter the value : \n;
for (i=0; i<n; i++)
{
cin>>a [i];
{
 for (i=0; i<n; i++)
{
for (j=0; j<n; j++)
{
if (a [j]>a [j+1])
{
temp = a [j];
a [j] = a [j+1];
a [j+1] = temp;
}
}
}
cout<<"sorted array :\n";
for (i=o; i<n; i++)
{
cout<<a [i]<<"\n";
}
}
}
};
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Class Syntax Example:-

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
class example
{
private :
int a = 90;
public :
void set details (  )
{
cout<<a;
}
}
int main (  )
{
Example e ;
e.set details (  );
return 0;
}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 * Addition and Subtraction from the user given value

#include<iostream>
using namespace st;
class example
{
private:
int a, b;
public:
void add( )
{
cout<<"Enter Your 'a' Value";
cin>>a;

cout<<"Enter Your 'b' Value";
cin>>b;

cout<<"addition is "<<a+b<<"\n";
}
void sub( )
{

cout<<"Enter Your 'a' Value";
cin>>a;

cout<<"Enter Your 'b' Value";
cin>>b;

cout<<"subtraction is "<<a-b<<"\n";
}
};
int main( )
{
example e;
e. add( );
e. sub( );
return 0;
}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

* Write a program to sort a given array and show 5 numbers

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
class example
{
int arr[ 5 ], temp = 0;
public:
void setdetails ()
{
cout<<"Enter your value";
for (int i=0; i<5, i++)
{
cin>>arr[ i ];
}
void increasing or decreasing ( )
{
for (int i=0; i<5; i++)
{
for (int j=i+1; j<5; j++)
{
if (arr [ i ]>arr [ j ])
{
temp = arr [ i ];
arr[ i ] = arr [ j ];
arr[ j ] = temp;
}
}
}
}
void display( )
{
for (int i=0; i<5; i++)
{
cout<<arr[ i ] <<"\t";
}
};
int main( )
{
example e;
e.set details( );
e.increasing order( );
e.display( );
return 0;
}
}
};
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  Inheritance:-



Example:-

Single Level Inheritance:-

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
class A
{
public:
void sub( )
{
cout<<"A class sub method";
}
};
class B: public A
{
public:
void add( )
{
cout<<"B class add method";
}
};
int main( )
{
B obj;
obj.add( );
obj. sub( );
return 0;
}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Method Overloading

If two or more method having same name and different arguments, then we can say (Those methods are overloaded method)

class A
{
public:
void add (int a)
{
}
void add (int a, int b)
{
}
}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Overloading is posible in 3 ways

1. Order of arguments different.

class A
{
public:
void add (int a, float b)
{
}
void add (float a, int b)
{
}

2. Number of parameters different.

class A
{
public:
void add (int a)
 {
}
void add (int a, int b)
{
}

3. Typr of argumnts different.

class A
{
public:
void add (int a, int b)
{
}
void add (float a, float b)
{
}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Method Over-riding

If more than one method having same name and same parameters in two different classes (super and sub classes). Then we can say those methods are over-riden method.

class A
{
public:
void add(int a)
{
}
};
class B: public A
{
public:
void add (int a)
{
}
};
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Single Inhertance

#unclude<iostream>
using namespace std;
class A
{
public:
int a=90;
void add( )
{
cout<<"addition"<<"\n";
}
};
class B: public A
{
public:
void add( )
{
cout<<"hai";
}
};
int main( )
{
b.obj;
obj.add( );
return 0;
}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Overloading

#include<iostream>
using name space std;
class A
{
public
void add(int a)
{
cout<<a<<"\n";
}
void add (int a, float b)
{
cout<<a<<"-"<<b<<"n";
}
void add (float a, int b)
{
cout<<a<<"-"<<b<<"\n";
}
};
int main( )
{
 A obj;
obj.add(3,489.7);
obj.add (45);
obj.add(23.4,45);
}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Overloading

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
class A
{
public:
void add(int a)
{
cout<<"super class add method"<<"\n";
}
void sub (int a)
{
cout<<"super class sub method"<<"\n";
}
};
class B: public A
public:
void add (int a)
{
cout<<"sub class add mehod";
}
};
int main( )
{
B obj;
obj.add (20);
obj.sub(23);
}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Super class object

we can't pass to subject class reference variable. But, we can pass sub class object to super class
  
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Virtual Method

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
class A
{
public:
void add (int a)
{
cout <<"super class add method"<<"\n";
}
 void sub (int a)
{
 cout <<"super class add method"<<"\n";
}
virtual void add 1 ( )
{
cout<<"virtual add method of a class";
}
};
class B. public A
{
public:
void add (int a)
{
cout<<"sub class add method";
}
void add 1 ( )
{
cout<<"add 1 method of B class";
}
};
int main ( )
{
B b;
A * a;
a = & b;
a → add 1 ( );
}


Note:-
While calling the super class virtual method, compiler will give chance for sub class over-riding method. If such class does not contain over-ridden method, then the super class method is exceeded.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Interface:-
  interface is collection of pure virtual methods.

Class A
{
Virtual void add( )=0;
virtual void sub( )=0;
}
#include<iostream>
using namspace std;
class A
{
Virtual void add( )=0;
virtual void sub( )=0;
};
class B: public A
{
public:
void add( )
{
cout<<"B class add method";
}
void sub( )
{
cout<<"B class sub method";
}
};
int main( )
{
B obj;
obj.add( );
obj.sub( );
}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Abstract Class:-
  It is a collection of 0 - 100% pure virtual methods.

class A
{
virtual void add 1 ( )=0;
virtual void add 2 ( )=0;
virtual void add 3 ( )=0;
}
class A
{
virtual void add 1 ( )=0;
public:
void add 2 ( )
{
};
virtual void add 3 ( )=0;
}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

HAS - A Releationship:-

#include<iostream>
#include"A.cpp"
using namespace std;
class b
{
public:
void sub( )
{
cout<<"b class sub method";
}
};
int main( )
{
b obj;
A a;
a.add( );
obj.sub( );
}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

OOPs:-

Encapsulation:- Encapsulation is a process of wrapping up of data members (variable) and member methods (Methods).

By using class we can achieve encapsulation

Example:-

class A
{
public
int a=90;
void add ( )
{
}
}

In the above example we are wrapping or binding variable "a" and method in a block.

Access specifers in CPP:-

1. Private:- Private is the default access specifier in cpp. Private content is belongs to only class.

class A
{
private:
int a = 90;
}
class B: public A
{
public:
void add( )
{
cout<<a;    →   This line is error line, Because private variable a is belongs to A class only.we can't use out side of class.
}
};

2. Public:- Public content we can access in any class.

3. Protected:- Protected content we can access with in class and it's sub class only.

Abstraction:- Highlighting the required information by using interface and abstract classes, we can achieve abstraction.

  Interface:- Interface is the collection of 100% pure virtual methods.

  Abstract class:- Abstract class is the collection of 0 to100% pure methods.

Interface:-

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
class bank
{
virtual void add 1 ( ) = 0;
virtual void add 2 ( ) = 0;
virtual void add 3 ( ) = 0;
};
class Shonu: public bank
{
public:
void add 1 ( )
{
cout<<"add 1 metho is done";
}
void add 2 ( )
{
cout<<"add 2 method is don";
}
void add 3 ( )
{
cout<<"add 3 method is done";
}
};
int main ( )
{
Shonu obj;
obj.add 1 ( );
obj.add 2 ( );
obj.add 3 ( );
}

Next Method:-

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
class Shonu
{
public:
void add 1 ( )
{
cout<<"Shonu add 1 method is done \n";
}
void add 2 ( )
{
cout<<"Shonu add 2 method is done";
}
};
class Amit : public Shonu
{
public :
void add 1 ( )
{
cout<<"Amit add 1 mthod is done \n";
}
void add 2 ( )
{
cout<<"Amit add 2 mthod is done \n";
}
};
int main ( )
{
Amit obj;
Shonu * m;
m = &obj;
m → add 1 ( );
m → add 2 ( );
}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Error:- Any syntactical mistake is called error

Example:- 

2. Exception:- Exception is a unexcepted event or logical error.

The problem with exception is abnormal termination of a program.

To handle exception we have three keywords
1. Try
2. Catch.
3. Throw

Handling the exception:-

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
class A
{
public:
void add ( )
{
int a = 10, b = 2;
cout<<"statement 1\n";
cout<<"statement 2\n";
cout<<"statement 3\n";
try {
if (b = = 0)
throw'1';
cout<<a/b<<"\n";
}
catch (char s)
{
cout<<"we shoud not enter any number/zero";
cout<<"after exception";
cout<<"end";
}
};
int main ( )
{
b obj;
obj.add (1);
return 0;
}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Constructor:- It is a special method which is used to allocate memory for class.

Rules to declare constructor:-

1. Constructor do not allow return type.
2. Constructor name should be class name only.

Can we overload constructor or not?
Answer:- Yes

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
class A
{
public:
A ( )
{
cout<<"constructor";
}
A ( int a)
{
cout<<"parameterized contructor";
}
};

Destructors:- Destructors are used to the allocate memory of class. destructors will be excuted after compleation of all method in class.

What is ( : : ):-

# include <iostream>
using namespace std;
class A
{
public:
void sub ( );
void add ( );
{
cout<<"add method";
}
};
void A : : sub ( )
{
cout<<"sub method of class A";
}
int main ( )
{
A obj;
obj. sub ( );
obj. add ( );
return 0;
};

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